The Quasiturbine or Qurbine engine is a proposed pistonless rotary engine using a rhomboidal rotor whose sides are hinged at the vertices. The volume enclosed between the sides of the rotor and the rotor casing provide compression and expansion in a fashion similar to the more familiar Wankel engine , but the hinging at the edges allows the volume ratio to increase. Unlike vane pumps , in which vane extension is generally important and against which the pressure acts to generate the rotation, the Quasiturbine contour seals have a minimal extension and the rotation does not result from pressure against these seals. As well as an internal combustion engine , the Quasiturbine has been proposed as a possible pump design, and a possible Stirling engine. The earliest Quasiturbine design used a three-wheeled carriage French chariot , hence avec chariots or AC for with carriages to support each vertex of the rotor. The wheels of these four carriages, making twelve wheels in total, ran around the periphery of the engine chamber.
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Since the Quasiturbine is a pure expansion engine which the Wankel is not, neither most of other rotary engines , it is well suitable as compressed fluid engine — Air engine or air motor.
From the basic cc per revolution engine bloc, a compressed air prototype has been built making use of 2 parallel expansion circuits of cc per revolution each, for a total of about 14 cubic feet intake per minute at RPM. The pneumatic engine does not show any vibration on the shaft. It does run in heavy smoke or under water as well.
Exhaust can even be respirated by the fireman! A must for all civil defence organization …. All gas heat up during compression and cool down during relaxation.
The cooling effect must not be under-estimate. As an example, a typical bar atm. In those temperature conditions at the entrance of a pneumatic motor, the efficiency is catastrophically low and the lubricant solidified, increasing considerably the internal engine friction… Generally, the reversibility of the compression — relaxation cycle reduces with an increase in pressure, which favours for high efficiency consideration the use of the lowest design pressure possible.
The measurement of the exhaust temperature gives generally a good indication of the efficiency, since the minimum of energy lost into the environment correspond to an exhaust temperature equal neither inferior, nor superior to the ambient temperature. This condition can be achieve by a slight heating solar of the gas before its entry into the pneumatic motor.
Quasiturbine makes much more relaxation if it is use with a dominant restriction at the entries of the chambers, and not at the exhausts. The openings of exhaust must then be larger than them openings of intakes, so that the air leaves more easily than it does enter, and thus lowers of pressure in the engine. In this case, Quasiturbine has less specific power, but because it makes more relaxation, it is more effective.
One can make more relaxation by still reducing access to the intake, without synchronization valve, or by reducing somewhat the torque taken out of the machine. Adiabatic versus isothermal expansion When a compressible fluid is compressed, its temperature increases, and conversely when it expands, it cools itself. Gas cooling during expansion is not a good thing, because it reduces the pressure in the expansion machines positive displacement , and lowers the gas speed in turbines.
To get the most power out of a machine not necessarily to get more efficiency , one likes to add heat to the expanding gas, and if this is not possible in the process, the expansion is split in several stages like 2 and 3 stages steam turbine. One must understand that the extra power obtained this way is not free, since heat has to be supplied, but it does give a better output per pound of engine.
What is nice about internal combustion engine, is their ability to provide the maximum heat by combustion while the expansion is actually occurring, something no other gas compressible engine can do easily! While placing an exchanger on this conduit one can add heat in an attempt to make that the total relaxation in the engine approaches an isothermal relaxation.
In this case, the differentials of internal pressure is distributed between the 2 successive chambers. In the conventional turbines, one often makes such an intermediary heating in order to increase the total power output of the machine, without necessarily increasing the efficiency. In the case of Quasiturbine, the connection in series reduces inevitably the specific power but can increase the output if intermediate heat is available free, as in the case of atmospheric heat in pneumatic mode.
If the differential of pressure is considerable, the volumes and displacements involved in the initial relaxation are much less than with the final relaxation, so that the machine in initial phase must be of smaller dimension let us say for a relaxation from to psi that for the final phase of to 0 psi. If the use of a single machine requires an initial pressure reduction, this initial loss of pressure in a regulator is not converted into mechanical energy, but in thermal cooling and kinetic energy, the last one attenuates obviously adiabatic cooling… Because volumes and displacements in final phase are more important, the same differential of pressure on this level produces more energy at a higher pressure.
In other words, to extract the maximum energy from a very high pressure, one would need a cascade of machine starting with smallest, each one reducing the pressure a little and feeding the following one… The old steam engines use 3 such stages or more stages in the case of turbines , Titanic had steam engines using 4 stages of relaxations… MDI for its part proposes a pneumatic car with very high pressure using 3 stages with piston.
Nothing prevents from juxtaposing 3 Quasiturbines of different sizes to do still better! In the case of a source of pressure which becomes exhausted with time like compressed air in cylinders, the obvious disadvantage is that early stages would become useless as the pressure becomes less. A high pressure tank cooled gradually when pour in an intermediate low pressure tank, but it is at the entry of the low tank pressure that the relaxation is violent and where cooling is most considerable.
However, relaxation kinetic energy forces does not transform itself into mechanical work, but into heat, thus reducing the net effect of cooling in the low tank pressure or in the regulator.
It is however not very wise to use the energy of pressure of high pressure tank to heat the intermediate partially low pressure tank, from where the interest to use multiple mechanical relaxations with heaters isobars between the stages! Energy being proportional to the pressure time the volume, energy is weak after each relaxation even if there is pressure, because volume is contracted and weak, and it is the heating which gives again the volume, and thus of energy These multiple relaxations are profitable in the case of systems of several megawatts with high and constant initial pressure having important operating time ratios, but are more difficult to justify in the case of small vehicles asking for a few tens of kW only, where the operating time ratio is half an hour per day, and of which high pressure of the tanks is not constant!
See Quasiturbine Hydraulic Motor at: Quasiturbine. Quasiturbine pneumatic-steam model QT50SC Without carriage Usable with intake sustained pressure as low as 20 to 50 psi! Those result can be scaled linearly for other pressure differentials. Usable with intake sustained pressure as low as 20 to 50 psi! In practice, divide the torque and power by 2 to account for the form factor would provide more realistic results. Liquid nitrogen is somewhat a reject of the oxygen distillation process, and is consequently relatively affordable.
The world of new ecological energy often consider sources 2 orders of magnitude under the petroleum. Assuming that an ambient temperature heat source is always available for free, a gallon of liquid nitrogen contains only 10 to15 times less mechanical energy than a gallon of gasoline, and it is zero pollution! This high performance cycle is specially simple to built, non polluant, and appear well suitable for mobile units. It does also fit very well the pure thermal sources, like the solar energy thermal conversion stations.
This concept also allow to conceive a working cycle in which the heat quantity given to the liquid nitrogen is such that the exhaust temperature after expansion is equal to the ambient temperature! As the output efficiency grows quickly with overheat, we propose to use in addition a small burner with propane for example, to overheat gas nitrogen and consequently the Quasiturbine itself , so that temperatures of exhausts after adiabatic cooling become about degrees Celsius or more.
This mode allows several advantages:. The heat of vaporization and reheating of liquid nitrogen will be recovered later by replacing the evaporator by a Quasiturbine-Stirling mounted on the same shaft. Note one the efficiency As for the vapour, the effectiveness of the cycle is function of the ability overheat the gas.
Cooling in a pressurized gas bottle is initially considerable, which reduces much the pressure of the bottle, but worse the cold gas increases density and consumes himself then too quickly. If the ambient conditions can provide free heat, it is much better, but overheating generally imposes a burner hybrid. An effective fitting thus requires an exchanger to heat with ambient temperature on the outlet side of the bottle, followed of a superheater of the gas propane or other right before the entry into the engine Quasiturbine.
The privileged set-up would be a burner below, just under the superheater, on which the bottle could even be to profit from one residual reheating, and finally the exchanger to heat at the ambient temperature capping the whole… The exhaust gas of the engine deprived of moisture gain to be injected near relaxation to avoid the frost.
The reversibility of a pneumatic system storage worsens with increasing chosen pressure, unless the heat is also stored in the tank at the time of compression storage for short duration and low 10 bar — psi. At the time of use, the liquid nitrogen has a thermodynamic advantage on compressed gases coming from a bottles at very high pressure.
Indeed in relaxing, the very high pressures produce an intense cold which reduces the volume of gases gradually and thus reduces the mechanical energy extracted. Within the bottles, the energy is strictly that of the adiabatic pressure drop ignoring the potential energy generated by the coldness of the gas, which is recovered due to an external heat contribution!
However, to produce the power necessary for the propulsion of a vehicle with reasonable Quasiturbine size QT75SC , a differential of pressure from 50 to psi is enough. Then why having a differential of or psi which require a multi stages relaxation? Quasiturbine Pneumatic and Fuel cell : A perfect Match using liquid nitrogen! Why is the Quasiturbine revolutionizing the use of steam and solar energy?
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Quasiturbine tech promises engine paradigm shift
Quasiturbine QT. Suitable as a double-circuits Rotary Motor or Expander for compressed air, steam and other fluids, or later as an advanced Internal Combustion Rotary Engine, as well as later for Compressor of various thermodynamic cycles. The Quasiturbine is a compact, low weight and high torque machine with top efficiency, specially in power modulation applications. The Quasiturbine is a pistonless Rotary Machine using a deformable rotor whose blades sides are hinged at the vertices. The volume enclosed between the blades of the rotor and the stator casing provides compression and expansion in a fashion similar to the familiar Wankel engine, but the hinging at the edges allows higher compression ratio and different time dependencies, while suppressing the Wankel rotor dead time, and this without the complex rotor synchronization gears. This chainsaw is shown only as a sample of 1.
Quasiturbine Engine Works With Air
The Quasiturbine , is a new concept patented 10 years ago , that promises to revolutionize the internal combustion engine. It is said to make engines more efficient, quieter and much lighter for the same torque and horsepower abilities. It also promises to make for better compressors and pneumatic motors refrigeration, heat pumps, stirling engines, steam turbines. The Quasiturbine or Qurbine engine is a pistonless rotary engine using a four-sided rhomboid rotor whose sides are hinged at the vertices. For more details see this explanation of how the Quasiturbine works.