Leaving behind an important cultural legacy, he is considered one of the greatest playwrights in Romanian language and literature, as well as one of its most important writers and a leading representative of local humour. His work, spanning four decades, covers the ground between Neoclassicism, Realism, and Naturalism, building on an original synthesis of foreign and local influences. Although few in number, Caragiale's plays constitute the most accomplished expression of Romanian theater, as well as being important venues for criticism of lateth-century Romanian society. Ion Luca Caragiale was interested in the politics of the Romanian Kingdom, and oscillated between the liberal current and conservatism. Most of his satirical works target the liberal republicans and the National Liberals, evidencing both his respect for their rivals at Junimea and his connections with the literary critic Titu Maiorescu. As a result of these conflicts, the most prominent of Caragiale's critics barred his access to the cultural establishment for several decades.
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Leaving behind an important cultural legacy, he is considered one of the greatest playwrights in Romanian language and literature, as well as one of its most important writers and a leading representative of local humour. His work, spanning four decades, covers the ground between Neoclassicism, Realism, and Naturalism, building on an original synthesis of foreign and local influences.
Although few in number, Caragiale's plays constitute the most accomplished expression of Romanian theater, as well as being important venues for criticism of lateth-century Romanian society.
Ion Luca Caragiale was interested in the politics of the Romanian Kingdom, and oscillated between the liberal current and conservatism.
Most of his satirical works target the liberal republicans and the National Liberals, evidencing both his respect for their rivals at Junimea and his connections with the literary critic Titu Maiorescu. As a result of these conflicts, the most prominent of Caragiale's critics barred his access to the cultural establishment for several decades.
During the s, Caragiale rallied with the radical movement of George Panu , before associating with the Conservative Party. After having decided to settle in Berlin, he came to voice strong criticism for Romanian politicians of all colours in the wake of the Romanian Peasants' Revolt, and ultimately joined the Conservative-Democratic Party.
Ion Luca was the nephew of Costache and Iorgu Caragiale, who were major figures of midth century Romanian theatre. His sons Mateiu and Luca were both modernist writers. Her maiden name was given as Alexovici Alexevici or as Karaboa Caraboa. The Caragiali couple also had a daughter, named Lenci. Ion Luca's uncles, Costache and Iorgu Caragiale, also known as Caragiali , managed theater troupes and were very influential figures in the development of early Romanian theater—in Wallachia and Moldavia alike.
Luca Caragiali had himself performed with his brothers during his youth, before opting to settle down. All three had stood criticism for not taking part in the Wallachian Revolution, and defended themselves through a brochure printed in The brothers Caragiali had two sisters, Ecaterina and Anastasia. Especially in his old age, the writer emphasized his family's humble background and his status as a self-made man. Although it prompted his biographer Constantin Dobrogeanu-Gherea to define him as "a proletarian", Caragiale's account was disputed by several other researchers, who noted that the family had a good social standing.
Ion Luca Caragiale was discreet about his ethnic origin for the larger part of his life. In parallel, his foreign roots came to the attention of his adversaries, who used them as arguments in various polemics.
As his relations with Caragiale degenerated into hostility, Mihai Eminescu is known to have referred to his former friend as "that Greek swindler". Aware of such treatment, the writer considered all references to his lineage to be insults.
On several occasions, he preferred to indicate that he was "of obscure birth". Nevertheless, as literary critic Tudor Vianu noted, Caragiale's outlook on life was explicitly Balkanic and Oriental, which, in Vianu's view, mirrored a type "which must have been found in his lineage".
A similar opinion was expressed by Paul Zarifopol , who speculated that Caragiale's conservative mindset was possibly owed to the "lazyness of one true Oriental" elsewhere, he referred to the writer as "a lazy southerner, fitted with definitely supranormal intelligence and imagination". On one occasion, Caragiale mentioned that his paternal grandfather was "a Greek cook".
In several contexts, he referred to his roots as being in the island of Hydra. In one of his photographs, he posed in Oriental costume and sitting cross-legged, which was interpreted by Vianu as an additional reference to his Balkan background.
Investigations carried out by the Center of Theatric Research in Athens, Greece and made public in offered an alternative take on the Caragiales' origin. Various authors also believe that Caragiale's ancestors were Albanian or Aromanian. Originally, Ion Luca was known as Ioanne L. The definitive full version of his features the syllable ca twice in a row, which is generally avoided in Romanian due to its scatological connotations.
It has however become one of the few cacophonies accepted by the Romanian Academy. Born in the village of Haimanale, Prahova County the present-day I. During his early years, as he later indicated, he learned reading and writing with a teacher at the Romanian Orthodox Church of Saint George. At the age of seven, he witnessed enthusiastic celebrations of the Danubian Principalities' union, with the election of Moldavia's Alexandru Ioan Cuza as Prince of Wallachia; Cuza's subsequent reforms were to be an influence on the political choices Caragiale made in his old age.
He was probably enlisted directly in the second grade, as records do not show him to have attended or graduated the first year. The young Caragiale opted to follow in his uncles' footsteps, and was taught declamation and mimic art by Costache at the latter's theater school in Bucharest, where he was accompanied by his mother and sister.
It is also probable that he was a supernumerary actor for the National Theater Bucharest. He was not able to find full employment in this field, and, around the age of 18, worked as a copyist for the Prahova County Tribunal.
Throughout his life, Caragiale refused to talk about his training in the theater, and hid it from the people closest to him including his wife Alexandrina Burelly, who came from an upper middle class environment. By the age of 18, he was an enthusiastic supporter of the liberal current, and sympathized with its republican ideals. He returned to Bucharest later that year, after manager Mihail Pascaly hired him as one of the prompts at the National Theater in the capital, a period about which he reminisced in his Din carnetul unui vechi sufleur.
The poet Mihai Eminescu , with whom Ion Luca was to have cordial relations as well as rivalries, had previously been employed for the same position by the manager Iorgu Caragiale. In addition to his growing familiarity with the repertoire, the young Caragiale educated himself by reading the philosophical works of Enlightenment-era philosophes.
During the period, Caragiale also proofread for various publications and worked as a tutor. Ion Luca made his literary debut in , at the age of 21, with poems and humorous chronicles printed in G.
Teodorescu 's liberal-inspired satirical magazine Ghimpele. He published relatively few articles under various pen names—among them Car. He mostly performed basic services for the editorial staff and its printing press, given that, after Luca Caragiali died in , he was the sole provider for his mother and sister.
Following his return to Bucharest, he became even more involved with the radical and republican wing of the liberal trend—a movement commonly referred to as "the Reds". As he later confessed, he frequently attended its congresses, witnessing the speeches held by Reds leader C. Rosetti ; he thus became intimately acquainted with a Populist discourse, which he later parodied in his works.
Working for Ghimpele , he made the acquaintance of republican writer N. Several of his articles for Ghimpele were sarcastic in tone, and targeted various literary figures of the day. In June , Caragiale amused himself at the expense of N. Popescu-Popnedea , the author of popular almanacs, whose taste he questioned. Soon after, he ridiculed the rising poet Alexandru Macedonski , who had publicized his claim that he was a "Count Geniadevsky", and thus of Polish origin. The article contributed by Caragiale, in which he speculated that Macedonski referred to with the anagram Aamsky was using the name solely because it reminded people of the word "genius", was the first act in a long polemic between the two literary figures.
Caragiale turned Aamsky into a character on his own, envisaging his death as a result of overwork in editing magazines "for the country's political development". Caragiale also contributed poetry to Ghimpele : two sonnets, and a series of epigrams one of which was another attack on Macedonski.
The first of these works, an sonnet dedicated to baritone Agostino Mazzoli, is believed to have been his first contribution to the belles-lettres as opposed to journalism.
Indeed, this young man's appearance, his hasty gestures, his sarcastic smile [ Over the following years, Caragiale collaborated on various mouthpieces of the newly created National Liberal Party, and, in May , created the satirical magazine Claponul. According to literary historian Perpessicius , the series constituted "one of the most solid critical contributions to the history of our theater". According to many versions, Eminescu, who was working on the editorial staff of the main Conservative newspaper, Timpul , asked to be joined by Caragiale and the Transylvanian prose writer Ioan Slavici , who were both employed by the paper.
This order of events remains unclear, and depends on sources saying that Eminescu was employed by the paper in March Other testimonies indicate that it was actually Eminescu who arrived last, beginning work in January Over that period, Timpul and Eminescu were engaged in a harsh polemic with the Reds, and especially their leader Rosetti.
It was also then that Romania entered the Russo-Turkish War as a means to secure her complete independence from the Ottoman Empire. Caragiale reportedly took little interest in editing Timpul over that period, but it is assumed that several unsigned chronicles, covering foreign events, are his contributions as are two short story adaptations of works by the American author Edgar Allan Poe , both published by Timpul in spring-summer The newspaper was actually issued as a collaborative effort, which makes it hard to identify the authors of many other articles.
According to Slavici, Caragiale occasionally completed unfinished contributions by Eminescu whenever the latter had to leave unexpectedly. He concentrated instead on Claponul , which he edited and wrote single-handedly for the duration of the war.
Zarifopol believed that, through the series of light satires he contributed for the magazine, Caragiale was trying out his style, and thus "entertaining the suburbanites, in order to study them". Claponul ceased publication in early Initially, Caragiale met with Junimea founder, the critic and politician Titu Maiorescu , during a visit to the house of Dr. Kremnitz, physician to the family of Domnitor Carol I. The doctor's wife and Maiorescu's sister-in-law, Mite Kremnitz , was herself a writer, and later became Eminescu's lover.
During several meetings, Caragiale was asked by Maiorescu to write down a series of aphorisms in an album. His concise musings are contemplative in tone, and some of them constitute evidence of both misanthropy and, to a certain degree, misogyny. The work, ridiculing the petite bourgeoisie 's mix of liberal values and demagogy over a background of superficial culture, immediately struck a chord with the majority-conservative grouping.
Its reception was one of the pivotal moments in the second period of Junimea activities, characterized by the society's expansion to Bucharest and its patronage of the arts. To varying degrees, they all complimented the main element of Junimist discourse, Maiorescu criticism of "forms without a foundation"—the concept itself referred to the negative impact of modernization, which, Junimea argued, had by then only benefited the upper strata of Romanian society, leaving the rest with an incomplete and increasingly falsified culture.
Ion Luca Caragiale also associated with Junimea' s mouthpiece, Convorbiri Literare , and continued to contribute there even after , when the society began to decline in importance. It was here that all his major comedies were first presented to the public. He did not, however, join Petre P. Carp 's movement, which aimed to consolidate Junimea as a third force in Romanian politics, and remained a staunch independent over the following years. Its production brought the first association between Caragiale and comedian Mihai Mateescu, who went on to portray some of his most popular characters.
The play was a hit, and acclaim reached Caragiale despite the fact that he had refused to have his name printed on the posters. Caragiale was soon outraged to discover that, by the second staging, his text had been toned down by the government-appointed Head of Theaters, the National Liberal Ion Ghica.
Over the following years, independent troupes staged the play or its plagiarized versions for their own benefit. Caragiale subsequently took part in directing his plays at the National Theater, where his main collaborator was actor and manager Constantin I. Together, they are credited with having put a stop to the techniques favored by Mihail Pascaly, replacing emphatic declamation with a more natural and studied perspective on acting.
Accompanied by Maiorescu, Caragiale left for Austria-Hungary. He was practically unemployed after returning, and, in , gave up his position at Timpul. Nevertheless, that autumn, V. He became close to Veronica Micle , a woman writer who was also Eminescu's mistress. For a while, Caragiale and Micle had a love affair, although she continued to see the poet.
COMEDIILE DOMNULUI CARAGIALE TITU MAIORESCU PDF
Titu maiorescu in articolul comediile domnului caragiale. A critical approach on the romanian poetry of jan Maiorescu, titu, comediile domnului. The critic and politician Titu Maiorescu was pleased by its success, and side and published a paper entitled Comediile Domnului Caragiale. Please download to get full document. Junimea and his connections with the literary critic Titu Maiorescu. Inhomogeneously bustling. My own personal maioresci is that a true understanding of Caragiale can never belong to a non-Romanian.