CEREBRO EN ACCION LURIA PDF

Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Traditionally, neuropsychology has focused on identifying the brain mechanisms of specific psychological processes, such as attention, motor skills, perception, memory, language, and consciousness, as well as their corresponding disorders. However, there are psychological processes that have received little attention in this field, such as dreaming. View PDF.

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Traditionally, neuropsychology has focused on identifying the brain mechanisms of specific psychological processes, such as attention, motor skills, perception, memory, language, and consciousness, as well as their corresponding disorders. However, there are psychological processes that have received little attention in this field, such as dreaming.

This study examined the clinical and experimental neuropsychological research relevant to dreaming, ranging from sleep disorders in patients with brain damage, to brain functioning during REM sleep, using different methods of brain imaging.

This explanation describes how, during dreaming, an activation of the First Functional Unit occurs, comprising the reticular formation of the brainstem; this activates, in turn, the Second Functional Unit — which is formed by the parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes and Unit L, which is comprised of the limbic system, as well as simultaneous hypo-functioning of the Third Functional Unit frontal lobe.

This activity produces a perception of hallucinatory images of various sensory modes, as well as a lack of inhibition, a non-selfreflexive thought process, and a lack of planning and direction of such oneiric images.

Dreaming is considered a type of natural confabulation, similar to the one that occurs in patients with frontal lobe damage or schizophrenia. The study also suggests that the confabulatory, bizarre, and impulsive nature of dreaming has a function in the cognitiveemotional homeostasis that aids proper brain function throughout the day.

Themes: Neuropsychology ; th anniversary of Lev Vygotsky. However, there are psychological processes that have received little attention in this field; among them is the process of dreaming. Such research has been examined here. We can start by asking ourselves: Are dreaming, or dreams, a subject of study for neuropsychology? Dreaming is an active psychophysiological process that involves the presence of perceptible hallucinatory images during sleep i.

Furthermore, there is a lack of control over the course of dream scenes, in which there are often violations of the laws of physics. Arthur W. If, after this, we assume that reality training is a complex form of mental activity, the next questions would be: Which particular brain systems are involved in this process? What are the differences between the neuropsychological systems involved in the conscious processes of wakefulness, and the ones involved in dreaming?

Obviously dreams have interested and captivated humanity since ancient times. Since then, we have learned that human sleep is made up of two phases: REM sleep, which is generally associated with dreaming, and non-REM sleep, or sleeping without rapid eye movement, from which very few dreams are recalled. In the REM phase, the eyes move rapidly in all directions, and upon waking up, people frequently report having dreamt. All this intense psychophysiological activity is accompanied by muscle atonia Berger, , the function of which, some authors have mentioned, is to avoid the translation of the dream into action Fisher, Although Luria does not explicitly mention it, we believe it is convenient to incorporate the limbic system as a Fourth Unit:.

D Unit L, which includes the hippocampus, amygdala, and fornix, comprises the limbic system, as well as para-limbic structures, such as the cingulate gyrus and the para-hippocampal and orbitofrontal regions. Hobson and Stickgold found that during REM sleep, activation of the brainstem starts in the cholinergic system on a pontine level.

The activation of the First Unit also differs from that in wakefulness, in that it produces a greater stimulation of the structures in Unit L, the unit that produces emotional activation Calvo, It can be inferred that any variable that increases limbic system activity during dreams can cause differences in emotional intensity, ranging from little emotional content to nightmares.

As an example, the cases of patients with areas of epileptogenic activity in the limbic and paralimbic regions Unit L , as in the case of the temporal lobe epilepsy, show a higher dream-recall frequency than patients with generalized tonic-clonic seizures and normal people Epstein, ; Maquet et al.

As a consequence of the activation of Unit 1, Unit 2 is stimulated, generating activation in visual, perceptive-imaginative, auditory, linguistic, spatial, and tactile functions.

This patient lost the ability to dream and also showed optic aphasia, optic apraxia, aphasia without agraphia, and color agnosia. The frontal lobe can be divided into two regions: the motor region Brodmann areas 4, 6, and 8 and the non-motor region, or prefrontal lobe Areas 9, 10, 11, 44, 45, 46, and The pre-frontal lobe is divided into three regions:. Figure 1. Other areas that are activated are the prefrontal medial region and the part that corresponds to the anterior region of the cingulate gyrus Braun et al.

These structures have a connection with Unit L. Using the same technique, Maquet et al. Doricchi and Violani and Murri et al. This also supports the hypothesis that Unit 3 is inactive and not necessary for the dreaming process. Corsi-Cabrera et al. During REM sleep in normal people, there is an increase in the activity of Unit L and a decrease in Unit 3; however, we cannot observe the behavioral effects, due to the activation of the cerebral mechanisms that produce the muscle paralysis that comes with this type of sleep, preventing the body from acting out dreams.

These behaviors are not directed towards an objective, because when a piece of meat or a mouse is placed near them, they do not seem to notice them, and they continue with their stereotypical behavior.

Jouvet et al. This behavior is very similar to that of the Jouvet et al. Thus, RBD also represents an etiological model for the study of oneiric behavior.

The findings cited above allow us to suggest that the nature of the oneiric content during dreaming is caused by the simultaneous inhibition of 1 the prefrontal lobe in the dorsolateral region — the region that is in charge of the executive functions,. Thus, the main proposal of this model, is that the characteristics of the oneiric content -that is, the lack of planning and control of critical and coherent thought toward what is dreamt, as well as the ease by which emotional and motivational impulses emerge in dreams — basically correspond to an increase in the activity of Unit 1, 2 with the exception of the PTO region , Unit L, and the medial region of the prefrontal lobe that occurs simultaneously with the inhibition of the dorsolateral and orbital regions of Unit 3 Figure 1.

Luria mentioned that the confabulations of these patients are similar to the oneiric states in terms of the loss of the selectivity of mental processes, which is typical of the normal conscious life Figure 1. Meanwhile, Koukkou and Lehman have suggested that the cerebral state of an adult during dreaming corresponds functionally to the state of wakefulness during childhood, based on the similarity of the electroencephalographic activity of the different phases of sleep and in human development phases.

They suggest that every time we dream, there is an age regression in our psychophysiological functioning that causes us to have access to cognitive memories and strategies of that younger age. Then, according to this hypothesis, a functional regression of cognitive activity in dreaming would imply incomplete functioning of the prefrontal lobe. On the other hand, the recollection of dreams becomes interesting.

It is well known that dreams are difficult to remember in wakefulness Fisher, During dreaming, only the limbic region is activated, not the prefrontal; this fact produces a partial or total loss of memory of the oneiric content upon waking up in most people Figure 1. We can conclude that dreams, as well as cognitive activity in wakefulness, come in various forms and contents.

For example, there could be dreams with a very high emotional content due to the intense activity of Unit L, a high imaginative-visual content with an increase of activity in the right hemisphere of Unit 2, or a high narrative-linguistic content produced by the left hemisphere, but always partnered with an inhibition of the dorsolateral and basal regions of Unit 3. These are dreams where the control and direction of the oneiric process are maintained, and the dreamer is aware that he is dreaming.

This is the result of an exceptional and sudden reactivation of the functioning of the dorsolateral and medial regions of the left prefrontal lobe and the temporoparietal region during REM sleep. This pattern of brain activity explains the recovery of the executive metacognitive abilities and voluntary control that characterizes lucid dreaming Dresler et al.

This process allows for an increase in prefrontal lobe functioning and a decrease of limbic activity throughout the day, allowing better impulse control, planning, and self-regulation of behavior. This researcher proposes this theory in light of the observation that the selective deprivation of REM sleep in animals produces increases in aggressive, sexual, and food-seeking behaviors.

Meanwhile, Vogel argued that the decrease in the amount of REM sleep as a consequence of the use of antidepressant drugs, is caused by an increase in impulse-motivated behavior during wakefulness, and therefore, a clinical improvement of depression. This then causes a decrease in activity in the dorsolateral region of the prefrontal lobe and an increase of activity of the limbic system, preventing the regulation and evaluation of social contexts and circumstances, sensations, and emotions in a suitable way during wakefulness Nofzinger, As we have examined, the prefrontal lobe of the human being is extremely sensitive to sleep; its functioning is altered by sleep deprivation, and it benefits and recovers with sleep of good quality and quantity Muzur, Pace-Schott, Hobson, This finding also favors the hypothesis that frontal hypo-activity and limbic hyperactivity during REM sleep is really homeostatic, meaning that an increase in emotional and motivational activity works as an escape valve during the night without the logical, reasoned, and regulating activity of the prefrontal lobe, and that during the day, the limbic activity decreases, and the dorsolateral and orbital activity of the prefrontal lobe increases.

In addition to the content of dreaming, there is an absence of control over the course of the dream scenes due to lack of the critical thinking that evaluates the coherence of what is happening; therefore, there is a passive and non-critic acceptance of what is occurring during the dream Corsi-Cabrera et al.

Furthermore, both conditions show similar neuropsychological functioning: a hypo-functioning of the frontal lobe and an activation of Unit L.

These characteristics impede the schizophrenic patient and the dreamer from organizing their thoughts, integrating them with emotions, and turning them into appropriate actions.

Schizophrenia studies with PET have shown diminished frontal lobe functioning. Dresler et al. Finally, we would like to mention several research questions that result from this article: What is the oneiric content in a patient with prefrontal damage?

There is a proven antidepressant effect of REM sleep deprivation Vogel et al. Does it produce changes in the biochemical functioning of the prefrontal lobe and the limbic system?

Abbott, A. While you were sleeping. Nature, , — Aldredge, J. Variations of heart rate during sleep as a function of the sleep cycle. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 35 2 , — Aserinsky, E.

Science, , — Beck, A. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 8 , — Berger, R. Tonus of extrinsic laryngeal muscles during sleep and dreaming. Science, , Braun, A. Regional cerebral blood flow throughout the sleep-wake cycle: an H2 PET study. Brain, 7 , — Brewer, J. Buchsbaum, M. Life Sciences, 45 15 , — Calvo, J. Colace, C. Reduction of dream bizarreness in impaired frontal cortex activity: A case report.

Sleep and Hypnosis, 17, 1—2. Corsi-Cabrera, M. Rapid eye movement sleep dreaming is characterized by uncoupled EEG activity between frontal and perceptual cortical regions. Brain and Cognition, 51 3 , — Cummings, J. Anatomic and behavioral aspects of frontal-subcortical circuits. Desseilles, M.

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Luria’s model of the functional Units of the brain and the neuropsychology of dreaming

We'd like to understand how you use our websites in order to improve them. Register your interest. Luria's neuropsychology has been particularly influential in the Spanish-speaking world. Its impact is observed with regard to not only assessment, but also rehabilitation, and, especially, neuropsychological theorization. In this article, Luria's approach to neuropsychological assessment is examined.

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Spanish Applications of Luria's Assessment Methods

Luria Alexander Romanovich Luria , Russian psychologist. Luria was educated at Kazan University and established its Psychoanalytic Association. He then worked at the University of Moscow, developing methods that would lead to the lie-detector test. In the s, he explored Central Asia, studying a wide range of psychological conditions.

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2015, Número 2

Cognitive and emotional processes during dreaming: A neuroimaging view. Conscious Cogn ; Rapid eye movement sep dreaming is characterized by uncoupled EEG activity between frontal and perceptual cortical regions. Brain and Cognition ; Epstein AW. Research Communications in Psychology, Psychiatry and Behavior ; 9: 15

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Traditionally, neuropsychology has focused on identifying the brain mechanisms of specific psychological processes, such as attention, motor skills, perception, memory, language, and consciousness, as well as their corresponding disorders. However, there are psychological processes that have received little attention in this field, such as dreaming. This study examined the clinical and experimental neuropsychological research relevant to dreaming, ranging from sleep disorders in patients with brain damage, to brain functioning during REM sleep, using different methods of brain imaging. This explanation describes how, during dreaming, an activation of the First Functional Unit occurs, comprising the reticular formation of the brainstem; this activates, in turn, the Second Functional Unit — which is formed by the parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes and Unit L, which is comprised of the limbic system, as well as simultaneous hypo-functioning of the Third Functional Unit frontal lobe. This activity produces a perception of hallucinatory images of various sensory modes, as well as a lack of inhibition, a non-selfreflexive thought process, and a lack of planning and direction of such oneiric images. Dreaming is considered a type of natural confabulation, similar to the one that occurs in patients with frontal lobe damage or schizophrenia. The study also suggests that the confabulatory, bizarre, and impulsive nature of dreaming has a function in the cognitiveemotional homeostasis that aids proper brain function throughout the day.

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