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Each generation of computer is characterized by a major technological development that fundamentally changed the way computers operate, resulting in increasingly smaller, cheaper, more powerful and more efficient and reliable devices. Read about each generation and the developments that led to the current devices that we use today.
Generations of Computer. First Generation They were very expensive to operate and in addition to using a great deal of electricity, generated a lot of heat, which was often the cause of malfunctions. Input was based on punched cards and paper tape, and output was displayed on printouts. Census Bureau in Second Generation The transistor was invented in but did not see widespread use in computers until the late s. The transistor was far superior to the vacuum tube, allowing computers to become smaller, faster, cheaper, more energy-efficient and more reliable than their first-generation predecessors.
Though the transistor still generated a great deal of heat that subjected the computer to damage, it was a vast improvement over the vacuum tube. Second-generation computers still relied on punched cards for input and printouts for output. These were also the first computers that stored their instructions in their memory, which moved from a magnetic drum to magnetic core technology.
Third Generation Transistors were miniaturized and placed on silicon chips, called semiconductors, which drastically increased the speed and efficiency of computers.
Computers for the first time became accessible to a mass audience because they were smaller and cheaper than their predecessors. Fourth Generation Present. What in the first generation filled an entire room could now fit in the palm of the hand. Microprocessors also moved out of the realm of desktop computers and into many areas of life as more and more everyday products began to use microprocessors.
Fourth generation computers also saw the development of GUIs, the mouse and handheld devices. Fifth Generation Present and Beyond. The use of parallel processing and superconductors is helping to make artificial intelligence a reality. Quantum computation and molecular and nanotechnology will radically change the face of computers in years to come. The goal of fifth-generation computing is to develop devices that respond to natural language input and are capable of learning and self- organization.
Use of vacuum tubes 2. High Electricity Consumption 4. Programming in Mechanical Language 5. Larger AC were needed 6. Transistors were used 2. Core Memory was developed 3. Faster than First Generation computers 4. First Operating System was developed 5. Computers became smaller in size than the First Generation computers 8. Integrated circuits developed 2. Power consumption was low 3. Development of Portable Computers 3.
RAID Technology of data storage 4. Used in virtual reality, multimedia, simulation 5. Computers started in use for Data Communication 6. Used in parallel processing 2. Used superconductors 3. Used in speech recognition 4. Used in intelligent robots 5. Learn more about Scribd Membership Home. Much more than documents. Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.
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Is this content inappropriate? Report this Document. Flag for Inappropriate Content. Download Now. Related titles. Carousel Previous Carousel Next. Jump to Page. Search inside document. Generations of Computer Each generation of computer is characterized by a major technological development that fundamentally changed the way computers operate, resulting in increasingly smaller, cheaper, more powerful and more efficient and reliable devices.
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