Puram, Coimbatore , India. Email: jayaraj icfre. Casuarina junghuhniana Miq. Tree improvement of the species and attempts at clonal forestry are in progress. A hybrid of Casuarina equisetifolia L.

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Casuarina junghuhniana Miq. It has been introduced to Kenya and Tanzania. A male, hybrid plant was introduced into Thailand in about , and its progeny was taken from there to India in the early s. Branches and foliage are burnt and the ash is spread on village gardens in Timor. The wood is highly suitable for firewood and charcoal production.

In Thailand, it is a popular source of construction piles and for fish traps. In Kenya and Tanzania farmers plant C. The wood is a suitable source of raw material for kraft pulp. It can be used to make hardboard in a mixture with Dipterocarpus spp. No statistics are available on wood production, international trade and areas planted to C.

Most plantings in Thailand and Kenya are scattered in small plots of a few hectares. Branchlets decompose slowly and provide good mulch. Average durability of untreated wood is 4. This can be increased to 15 years by treatment with a creosote preservative.

Mature seeds germinate readily without pretreatment. The cotyledons are folded initially, later extending and becoming oblong.

Under favourable conditions seedlings attain cm in height within 3 months. As the main stem elongates, side branches develop from the upper axils of scale leaves.

They are upright, giving the crown a slender, conical shape. Young trees continue to develop a conical crown; with age it tends to flatten. Seedlings can attain 3 m growth in height per year during the first years. In plantations with a controlled water regime in Thailand the C. In Markhanam, Tamil Nadu, India, hybrid trees reach a height of 5 m in 20 months. Shoot growth tends to cease or to be less during the flowering period which coincides with the dry season. Like other Casuarina spp.

The nodules are woody and perennial and can form large masses in the root system. Mycorrhizal fungi further enhance its adaptability to poor soils.

In its easternmost area of distribution, 2 forms occur, locally known as black and white casuarina, respectively. The forms with coarse branchlets may occur on exposed sites and are notable also for their rough, deeply-furrowed corky bark which is unusual for Casuarina spp.

The male hybrid introduced to Thailand has good form with straight stem and symmetrical conical crown. It is popular for commercial forestry and as an ornamental.

In eastern Indonesia, especially on Timor, it occurs from near sea level up to m altitude. Rainfall in the natural habitat is monsoonal, with a well-defined summer maximum and a reported annual range of mm. It is drought-tolerant and can survive prolonged waterlogging. Near Bangkok commercial plantations in salt-marsh areas are sometimes inundated with saline water. When trees reach a few metres in height they are fire resistant and sprout readily after being damaged by fire.

It is tolerant of a wide pH range, from 2. Propagation is by seed, shoot cuttings or air layering. Seed is sown onto germination beds. Seedlings are pricked out into polythene bags when cm tall. For mass propagation, shoot cuttings are more suitable than air layering. Young shoots mm in diameter and cm in length are rooted with the help of hormones, either indolebutyric acid IBA , indoleacetic acid IAA or naphthaleneacetic acid NAA.

Inoculation of the seedlings or cuttings with effective strains of Frankia is recommended when C. Some Frankia strains of C. When C. Weeding is necessary only during the first few years, after which the trees shed large amounts of branchlets to form a thick and dense mat of litter that suppresses weeds.

Pruning in plantations up to a height of 2. Trees respond well to coppicing and pollarding. A number of diseases are found associated with C. Damping-off of seedlings in nurseries is caused by various fungi Phytophthora sp. Butt and heart rot, caused by Ganoderma applanatum , may infest tree trunks after damage by fire. Schizophyllum commune may cause decay of the sapwood. Green branchlets are attacked by the Acrididae locust Aularches miliaris and insects of the family Lymantriidae.

In dry areas subterranean termites can destroy young plants by eating their roots. In Thailand they are controlled by spreading a small quantity of a mixture of equal amounts of lime and salt in the planting hole. Plantation-grown trees can be harvested throughout the year. In the highlands of Tanzania trees from a woodlot yielded In Thailand felled trees are transformed to poles by removing side branches. The length of poles is cut proportionately to the diameter, i.

Off-cuts from stems or branches are excellent firewood for the pottery industry. No special handling is required if the products are marketed as poles, piles or firewood. The wood, however, has a tendency to split when sawn.

Activities on tree improvement work appear to be limited to a small progeny trial in southern China established with seed mainly from Kenya and Tanzania, and from a small number of trees from Timor. International provenance trials have been established to examine genetic variation. Due to its fast growth, its nitrogen-fixing capacity, its wide adaptability, ease of propagation and excellent fuelwood quality, C. Cookies help us deliver our services. By using our services, you agree to our use of cookies.

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Casuarina junghuhniana

Casuarina junghuhniana Miq. It is a promising fast growing and nitrogen fixing tree. In Thailand, people use it for construction as post, pole, and fish trap. This study aimed to determine genetic variability on morphological characteristics and evaluated the growth potential of the species in the international provenance trials established at Lad Krating Plantation in Chachoengsao, Thailand. Survival percentages, height, and diameter at breast height DBH were measured at ages of 38, 44, 50, and 56 months.


Casuarina junghuhniana – a Highly Adaptable Tropical casuarina

Casuarina junghuhniana Miq. It has been introduced to Kenya and Tanzania. A male, hybrid plant was introduced into Thailand in about , and its progeny was taken from there to India in the early s. Branches and foliage are burnt and the ash is spread on village gardens in Timor. The wood is highly suitable for firewood and charcoal production.



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