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Recommend Documents. Proficiency English. English Vocabulary Organiser With Key. Accurate English a Complete Course in Pronunciation.
Experience states of Bliss. Full description. Certificate of Proficiency in English 3. A Proficiency Course in English with key F. Bywater, M. Nelson Contents [ntroduction 1. The constructions with basic verbs A-C 2. Pattern of verb tenses excluding conditionals 14 3. Notes on the uses of basic tenses 20 4. The constructions with basic verbs D-G 5. Conditionals 6. The constructions with basic verbs H-I 7.
Points to remember about using the passive in English 8. Bywater First published by Hodder and Stoughton Ltd. Reprinted eighteen times. No paragraph of this publication may be reproduced, copied or transmitted save with written permission or in accordance with the provisions of the Copyright, Design and Patents Act , or under the terms of any licence permitting limited copying issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency, 90 Tottenham Court Road, London, WIP 9HE.
Any person who does any unauthorised act in relation to this publication may be liable to criminal prosecution and civil claims for damages. I Printed in Hong Kong 9. Thesubjunctive The constructions with basic verbs 0 - S Inversion The constructions with basic verbs T-Z The pleonastic 'it' the extra 'it' The gerund The infinitive Compound or phrasal verbs B Interrogative sentences Relative pronouns Compound verbs C-D Uncountable nouns The uses of 'some', 'other', 'any', 'none', 'neither', 'one' and 'ones' Plurals Collective nouns Some points to note about the use of auxiliary verbs Introduction Indirect speech Compound verbs K-M The use of the articles in English The Saxon genitive the 's and the use of nouns as adjectives Compound verbs P-S Word order Compound verbs S-T Sentence construction Miscellaneous compound verbs Key This book has a very specific purpose.
Between the Cambridge First certificate and Cambridge Proficiency Examinations, students have to build up a far greater knowledge of idiomatic English and they have to learn to eliminate grammatical and stylistic mistakes.
In compiling it, I have hadonly one criterion: I have considered what, in the light of some years' experience of teaching English t o foreign students, seem to be the things that advanced students still have difficulty with, and I have given most of my attention to these things.
The Cambridge Examiners themselves have pointed out the vast number of mistakes with constructions after verbs which I have called government of verbs and so I have dealt with these in considerable detail, partly by giving lists for reference of the commonest expressions followed by a particular construction and, above all, by setting a large number of to give students practice in using these constructions. Apart from the government of verbs the following seem to me the most usual sources of mistakes: uncountable nouns, phrasal verbs which I have usually called compound verbs , tenses, articles and word order.
These are therefore the things that have been gone into most fully. This book, however, is not meant to be a comprehensive grammar book, and on many other aspects of grammar-such as the Passive, Relative Pronouns, Indirect Speech and Auxiliary Verbs-it assumes that the students have already studied the subject and merely draws attention to some salient points that may have been overlooked o r not properly grasped.
I may, with some justification, be accused of over-simplification in grammatical expositions. This is at least partly deliberate. As I have no wish to bog the student down in a mass of minor intricacies, everything not essential has been omitted. My aim throughout has been to present the grammar simply enough for the student to be able to get a clear, overall picture of it.
Where teachers think the over-simplification too scandalous, there is nothing to stop them filling in further details. Everyone has his hobby-horse and no book completely suits anyone except its writer. Books are aids to teachers, not tyrants over them. Allowing for such filling-in, however, I do intend the book to be worked through systematically.
Here, perhaps, a little advice about how to use it in class may not come amiss. Thus, for example, in section 1the teacher would point out the first principle mentioned and then ask members of the class to give some examples of it. Then he would ask one student to make up a sentence using 'advise'. Another student would be asked to make up another one using a different construction, then a third student, and so on. Subsequently, the grammar of the section can be given to read for homework as a preface to the students' writing the exercise s on it.
Afterwards the teacher can fill in this method of class participation and it can be applied to all sections, except 14 on the gerund and 15 on the infinitive , where the lists are host obviously for reference.
Here the teacher will probably limit himself to making sure that the students understand the meaning of the less common words. Throughout the book, this may be necessary, as the vocabulary used is quite extensive and in no way specially selected as simple. This method will ensure that the teacher is teaching, not merely acting as a kind of 'medium' to transmit messages from me--a disembodied spirit to all except my own pupils--to the class.
Because the book is meant to be worked through systematically I have not grouped all the grammar and exercises on a particular subject together. It looks neat, but is, for practical purposes, absurd to have a whole lot of exercises on one point together and then never another mention of the point.
Even the grammar on the government of verbs, tenses and phrasal verbs has been split up into a number of sections in an attempt to avoid mental indigestion. All the exercises on grammar follow the expositions and so are prepared beforehand, but revision exercises are found throughout the book. Exercises on vocabulary and comprehension, however, are inserted and have not been prepared beforehand. I do not see how they can be prepared without giving away all the answers.
A number of the points dealt with in this book do not seem to have been tackled in other books that I have seen for foreign students. I have therefore had little precedent to guide me and have indeed been driven to writing this by the very real gaps that I havenoticed in grammar books for advanced students.
I hope, therefore, that the shortcomings here will not be as severely censured as they would be if I were covering only well-known ground. Finally, a word on grammar rules. There is no justice in this life and all examiners are on the look-out for lapses of grammar. When Dickens wrote: 'The clerk's fire was so very much smaller that it looked like one coal', he, in common with every Englishman who has not taught English to foreigners, had never heard of an uncountable noun.
The vii unfortunate foreigner writing the same sentence would have marks deducted for not knowing his grammar. Grammar rules, therefore, serve only to help the student to play safe.
They are empirical, not Only a vast amount of reading of English literature will give the student a 'feel for the language' that will enable him to snap his fingers at the rules. If he has already reached that stage, this book has nothing to teach him. If not, I hope it may help him to reach it. Bywater i: The constructions with basic verbs A--C An important principle of English construction is that most verbs are followed by the same preposition before an ordinary noun and before a gerundive noun.
For a detailed studyof the gerund construction see Section 14, page He insists on that course of action. I praised the boy for acting so courageously. She is quite used to English life. She is quite used to living in England. A lot of children are fond of music. A lot of children are fond of singing and dancing.
That man saved me from an unpleasant death. That man saved me from drowning. If there is no preposition before an ordinary noun, there is no preposition before a gerundive noun either.
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