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Esa Hyyrylainen, Vaasa universitetas, Suomija Prof. Tomas Skersys, Kauno technologijos universitetas, Litetuva Prof. Ashley J. Neven Vrcek, Zagrebo universitetas, Kroatija Dr. Theme of Social technologies covers possible application of social technologies in areas of human rights protection, e-justice implementation, personal and community data security, society functionality and communication, networked teaching and education, health systems solutions, leisure activity arrangement and design of social goods and encourage scientific research in the fields mentioned.

We perform systematic analysis of technical, legal, political, economical, psychological and social obstacles preventing more effective adaption of information, communication and new nano-, bio-, mega- technologies in social life.

Main topics of the journal: 1. Social technologies in business organization management 2. Social technologies in public management 3. Social process modeling and perspectives for development of society 5. All articles are reviewed by at least two active scholars appointed by the board of editors; at least one of the reviewers should not be a member of the board of editors.

The reviewers are appointed blindly. Scientific articles in Lithuanian or English language can be published. Upon a separate permission of the board of editors an article may be published also in a different language.

Sedigheh Moghavvemi, Noor A. Koncepcinis nacionalinio e. Elaboration of Safe Community Assessment System Abstract Purpose—The purpose of the paper is to analyze how business models are employed in mobile communications, in order to tune them to the Femtocell domain, in addition to studying other goals that can be achieved by looking at the business models in an alternative way.

An analysis of the value chain is used to understand how to enhance current approaches to achieve new goals. Alvaro Gomes. Business Model for An example of these services is the implementation of techniques to save energy on the terminal side.

In particular, we show a case study where a novel service called C2POWER applies franchising re-selling of services of broadband access, to save energy on the mobile terminal side. Keywords: Business models, cooperation, value chain, network sharing. Introduction In the present day, to support the implementation of novel technologies in the cellular network market, it is necessary to have a good business model that shows the main benefits of this new architecture and the revenues associated.

To build a good business model it is important to follow a line that defines how the entity attracts customers to pay for a service, how those services are delivered to the customer, how the entity converts customer payments into profits and finally how the entity is organized to be able to meet the customer needs. Actually there are many successful business models e. Consequently, we can consider that innovation can be achieved through novel business models or by altering already existing ones.

An analysis of the value chain is important to understand where an innovation can be applied. For example, the book [3] and the work [4] discuss how to build and analyze a business model when applied to a particular scenario. Thus, besides the analysis of current approaches and the design of novel ones, a fundamental part of the innovation in the present work is related to the study of the exact position the approaches hold in the mobile value chain.

In the case of the telecommunication industry, one of the main topics analyzed is the role of different actors that appear in the overall value chain, and the impact that choosing different business models can have on them.

In the current state-of-the-art it is possible to find business models related to mobile telecommunications, like for example. Femtocell networks have been studied lately, as they can bring several benefits to mobile operators, while providing advantages to the final consumers.

Femtocells are low cost, low power network solutions that can increase the quality of service for the final consumers, and in both [6] and [7] the authors show business model examples where femtocells benefit both the consumer and the wireless access providers. C2POWER is a novel service, aimed at saving energy on the mobile terminal side, by applying a traditional business model re-selling of services, or franchising [8] in an alternative way.

Mobile operators and value chain As technology evolves, it is used increasingly by companies and final consumers, with the goal of improving operations and subsequently translating it in either financial gains or strategic advantages. Opportunities for realizing these two types of benefits can be identified through an examination of the business value chain illustrated in Figure 1, which describes the case of a mobile network value chain. The figure shows the relationship aspect of the value chain, highlighting the relationship management between organizations and the resulting competitive advantage for the appropriate strategy value.

This strategy can be viewed as the value-creating system itself, in which members work together to create value. A key strategic task is the reconfiguration of the value chain roles and the relationships in order to mobilize the creation of value in new forms and by new players.

The value is the relationship between the utility combination of benefits delivered to the customer and the total costs of acquiring the delivered benefits; in other words, the value is described as a preferred combination of benefits value criteria compared with the acquisition costs. In Figure 1, it is possible to observe the entities which are part of the value chain and their positions, which correspond to characteristics and functions respectively.

For example, by identifying the specific activities of a particular player in the value chain, it is possible to identify the competitive advantage [10], [11]. With the support of Figure 1, we can observe that the mobile network operators are prevalent in the value chain, dominating content delivery and the user retail environment for purchasing content and applications in the shape of operator portals. Many operators are currently expanding their role into content aggregation, application stores, smart enabler services for developers and other parties.

With this growing demand of wireless networks from users, mobile operators have the challenging task to exploit new locations to expand their own business. Actually divided by two types of evolution, developing and developed countries have an important role in the mobile market proliferation, where a mobile operator needs to analyze the market to further have a dominant position for future revenues. This domain is most visible in developing countries like China or India, because with the growth of network coverage there is an increased handset subsidy; moreover some operators chose the strategy to have handset exclusivity with some handset brands.

In developed countries, this domain is much smaller, since mobile operators have to face competition in all of their activities; hence having to spend high values on subscriber acquisition, taking into account the saturation of the market or even by constantly analyzing the economic slowdown [12]. Mobile operator competitiveness is nowadays strongly dependent on providing new contents and services to the end user. Because mobile operators are unable to develop all these services and contents in-house without losing their focus on their main business, they resort to other companies, which have these services and contents as their main businesses and can offer innovative solutions to promote the mobile operator in its competitions with other mobile operators.

However, to maintain their position, mobile operators have developed portals to ensure that content creators are kept away from endcustomers. This practice is based on the traditional assumption of the value chain that development of strategies is led by operators. Content providers Initially, the purpose to have content providers came directly from the network operators, who contacted other companies for proposals to be content providers that could produce diverse contents for the end users.

However, this partnership between network operators and content providers brings some difficulties that must be balanced in terms of business. For instance, the network operator has to be convinced that the content providers would maintain a high standard for their contents, while at the same time have to feel secure about their own relationship with other content providers that could produce innovative and interesting contents that would be applied in the network operator.

When a company in the business market offers a wide range of content, they usually provide their own created content based on their own field of business. Resources, like the mobile internet, are used to provide contents to consumers without spending a lot of financial resources. Only a restricted group of people in the company needs to work on a website to further include content. This means that these companies are simultaneously content owners as well as content providers. With these arrangements, the company can create cheap contents and obtain large profits, if it can appeal to a large number of consumers.

Companies in the category computer gaming are the best example of content owners and content providers. The subscription fees are the main source of revenue for the majority of content providers. An unofficial content provider is subject to a quality testing by users and any failure that they find is a serious problem for content providers.

For this reason, users normally choose an official site. Consequently, it takes longer to adjust to new trends or to introduce new ideas. Having ads is still limited, but this restriction is slowly being removed. The latter process is called syndication. For example Sapo [14] and Moreover [15] are among the increasing number of companies offering aggregated content for resale.

Aggregators are companies created with the aim of reducing the time and effort needed to constantly analyze websites for updates. The main role of these companies is to collect updated information from several providers, group them in a unique space and then make them available for consumers subscribers in a single browser display or desktop application.

Once subscribers are registered to a feed, an aggregator is able to check for new content at user-determined intervals and retrieve updates automatically. Aggregator features are frequently seen in portal sites such as Sapo, My Yahoo! Content aggregators are also mentioned as RSS readers, feed readers, feed aggregators, news readers or search aggregators. Today, internet access is still dominated by the fixed line or WiFi hotspots, but in the near future mobile devices that are connected to telecommunications networks are predicted to become the most important way to access the digital applications and services.

Consequently, an application service provider ASP is a company that offers individuals or enterprises access over the Internet to applications and related services that would otherwise have to be located in their own personal or enterprise computers [16]. ASP services are expected to become an important alternative, not only for smaller companies with low budgets for information technology, but also for larger companies as a form of outsourcing for many services for individuals as well.

While ASPs are expected to provide applications and services to small enterprises and individuals on a pay-per-use basis, larger corporations use ASP services to mainly promote a centralized control with a special kind of application server that is architected to handle applications off personal computers [17].

Mobile virtual network operator MVNO When there is a point of rupture in the traditional value chain, due to several factors such as fractious relationship between manufacturing and marketing or too many islands of data that lead to delayed decision making [18] , a new business model can emerge to take advantage as an intermediate like MVNO Mobile Virtual Network Operator.

MVNOs provide mobile voice and data services without owning the access rights to the spectrum they use. Figure 2 below shows the potential areas where an MVNO can participate within the Value Chain to further extract values. To provide services, MVNOs use the radio capacity obtained through commercial agreements with licensed mobile network operators, which have exclusivity of the access network, as the main purpose to exploit, for example, distribution channels, customer base in order to provide customized values specific products for customers, taking advantage of its brand awareness [19].

With the aim of reselling subscription to end users, MVNOs are dependent on MNO for every issue concerning service provision, billing and customer care. They have the ability to operate independently of the MNO and are also able to secure their own numbering ranges, design of services and tariff structures. Today, for better efficiency, operators attempt to understand the preferences of customers and segment them, providing differentiating ion personalized offerings [21].

In Figure 3, we can see the changing of competencies, such as, core competence, where a monopoly operator is concerned about the installation of infrastructure, because it aims to maintain customers, while the major objective of the competitive operator is launching products to attract potential new customers and offer new services to existing ones. There is also a description for the measure of the performance of the operator.

In a monopolist case, the measure of performance is verified by the number of connections, because it is important that the largest number of people become customers, increasing profits and at the same time preventing competitors from winning customers over. In a competitive case, the most important factor is the revenue per customer. It includes not only the revenues billed to the customer each month for usage, but also the revenue generated from incoming calls, payable within the regulatory interconnection regime.

The monopolist operator looks to competitive advantage like an economy of scale, where it refers to the cost advantages that a business obtains due to their expansion.

The monopolist operator provides a universal service as a corporate objective, while a competitive operator is based on a shareholder value where the company goal is to increase the potential of its shareholders by paying dividends. Consumer The network industry experts agree that final consumers have an important role in the value chain. Personalization, communication, positioning and immediacy are the focus of the mobile marketplace for consumers.

They believe that to have success in the mobile world market, they have to continuously reinforce the need to think like the consumer and take the consumer needs into account. By understanding consumer needs, the operators are capable of adjusting final products or services to meet consumer preferences. With that approach, mobile network operators are able to exponentially increment profits in a certain product due to consumer satisfaction. Consumers also have an important role in the development of a company with regards to innovation.

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