The role of human displacement and migration in cultural processes as well as in the development of form in art and architecture has long been recognized. Throughout the last two decades, however, with the increase of human exchange and experiences of exile, issues concerning dynamics of cultural transfer have come to guide the course of mainstream architectural history. Bringing together old and new ideas surrounding these issues, this article opens up a discussion about the self-perception of Brazilian modern architectural historiography, addressing the role of foreign and immigrant architects in the spread of architectural modernism. Its sources were rooted in the history of multiple nations, existing as a family of societies connected by historical, geographical, archaeological, anthropological, and linguistic facets 3.
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The role of human displacement and migration in cultural processes as well as in the development of form in art and architecture has long been recognized.
Throughout the last two decades, however, with the increase of human exchange and experiences of exile, issues concerning dynamics of cultural transfer have come to guide the course of mainstream architectural history. Bringing together old and new ideas surrounding these issues, this article opens up a discussion about the self-perception of Brazilian modern architectural historiography, addressing the role of foreign and immigrant architects in the spread of architectural modernism.
Its sources were rooted in the history of multiple nations, existing as a family of societies connected by historical, geographical, archaeological, anthropological, and linguistic facets 3. As Etienne Balibar put it 11 , this ethnicity understood race and language as the main manifestations of a national character, and articulated through binomial nationalism and modernity.
Hence, in tune with other Brazilian nationalist intellectuals 14 , Costa identified Portuguese architectural culture as the first and only source of Brazilian architecture. It included photographs by G. The narrative engendered by the nationalist political and intellectual atmosphere of those decades continued to permeate progressive circles and research institutions fed by postcolonial discourses throughout the Latin American continent.
This occurred even after the period of military dictatorship from to , which, for several decades, impoverished and narrowed the spectrum of Brazilian architectural historiography on the contribution of other nationals and architecture produced in Brazil throughout the nineteenth century through the turn of the twentieth century The French philosopher described the guestroom of a traditional colonial Brazilian farmhouse as follows:. Now the rooms were arranged in such a way that anyone […] could never reach the heart of the family: more than ever a passing visitor, never a true guest Those discussions were likely responsible for a premature recognition of the major role played by immigrant intellectuals and professionals upon their arrival to the United States during the interwar period and soon after, as they were pressed by political persecution and the rise of fascism.
This renewed scrutiny involved the circulation of not only architecture professionals in a broader geography, but also of ideas and forms that arose through different channels and media. The studies demonstrated the dissemination of modern architecture and the circulation of architects within Europe and beyond in Latin America, the Middle East, South Africa, and Asia Further, as a series of publications has revealed, those architects, urban planners, photographers, and designers, as well as artists and intellectuals, indeed exerted their influence on two generations of professionals.
The exile was therefore endowed with an original vision; and, while most people were mainly aware of one culture, one setting, or one country, the exile was conscious of at least two, making it easier to reconcile the universal with the particular. These two concepts, first put forth by Goethe in his definition of Weltliteratur , were later reassumed by Auerbach, who wrote:. Indeed, between the s and the beginning of the s, Warchavchik suffered harsh criticism from both the representatives of academicism 45 and the promoters of neo-colonial expression By , Federal Decree A ccording to article 1 lines c and d, the decree prevented foreign professionals without diplomas that were revalidated or registered by that date from practicing.
The subsequent constitution of would extend these restrictions to all liberal professions, leaving no room for further interpretation. The same article decreed that only Brazilian-born people would be allowed to revalidate professional diplomas issued by foreign educational institutions In the same year my friend Richard Neutra arrived in USA from Austria […] Our affinity was due to the fact that we have both discovered America at the same time, bringing to different places the willingness to work with a new spirit He began in by publishing a manifesto on modern architecture.
Then, between and , he designed his own modernist house with landscaping done by his wife, Mina Klabin Warchavchik, where he entertained Le Corbusier in This notion implied the grouping of individuals who shared common origins, as well as a language, either on a national or a European level. The same notion might serve as an instrumental conceptual model for analyzing the achievements of the so-called modernizing agents, by mapping the diverse interrelationships among and beyond immigrant circles.
These include relationships between architects, engineers, landscape designers, contractors and real estate investors, the photographers who documented a vital shift in the urban horizon, and the engravers, painters, and sculptors whose production completed those modern spaces.
In this context, an examination of those professional networks, from their origins within the Landsmannschaft 63 to their final manifestations within local society, might lead to an understanding of immigrant presence in urban cultural space in a broader sense.
This involves not only the distribution of foreign elements in an urban space, but also the understanding of particular building developments in a city body as the result of commitments forged inside the Landsmannschaft. Such was the case of the real estate development agency, Germaine Burchard, and the group of Polish professional refugees led by Korngold who were fleeing from European fascism They called upon specific American experiences and developments, as well as postwar debates inside of CIAM.
As demonstrated in the work of architect Rino Levi , for example, who studied in Milan and Rome with Piacentini during the s 66 , these architects encountered a diversity of projects: cinemas, theaters, hospitals, schools, universities, new typologies for commercial and residential buildings, and industries.
They therefore left their imprint on the urban landscape through their writings and teachings from the s to the s. Consequently, it prompted the revelation that a national expression is indeed the assemblage of many other-national strands and sedimentations, or as Sigfried Giedion still framed it in the s:. Trends shuttle to and fro, from one country one movement, one personality, to another, and become woven into a subtle pattern that portrays the emotional expression of the period […] Theodor W.
Adorno, Minima Moralia. Reyner Banham, A Concrete Atlantis. Beatriz Piccolotto S. Michel Espagne, Michel Werner eds. William H. Horace M. Fabio Koifman, Quixote nas trevas. Carlos A. Zeuler R. Riccardo Mariani, Razionalismo e architettura moderna. Mendes Junior, Park and Ernst W. Burgess eds. Wolff ed. Francesco Tentori, P. Bardi, , p. Tyler, Primitive Culture Research into the development of mythology, philosophy, religion, art, and custom 1 , London, John Murray, , p. Marcel Fournier and Jean Terrier , , p.
They resented the schema of the history of influences, through which one culture was submitted to the influence of another through the perspective of mediators, translators, and a context in which the receiver culture was mostly considered to be in a lower position, implying a cultural hierarchy.
The cultural atmosphere can be exemplified by the debates inside the SAL Seminarios de Arquitectura Latina Americanos on an abstract Latin American cultural and architectural identity, deprived of its substantial regional differences.
The article was published in English in Staiger eds. Geburtstag , Bern, Francke, , pp. Auerbach illustrated his viewpoint using this beautiful description by Hugo of St. The book written between and , was first published in On Lina Bo Bardi, see also R. Zeuler, M. It is practiced by people less given to art: Russians, Germans, Dutch, and Jews. Mendes Junior, , p. Medrano and Celso E. Exhibition sponsored by the immigrant couple Aracy e Samuel Klabin.
C, , pp. After marrying the Polish nobleman Count Roman W. The diary of a development , Cambridge: Harvard University Press, , p. Anat Falbel. Plan Marcel Mauss and the processes of cultural exchange and transference.
Modern Brazilian architectural narrative and its cultural context. Tools for revaluation of encounters between the foreigner and the national in Brazilian architectural historiography.
Immigrant professionals as modernizing agents or intermediaries between cultures. Tyler, Primitive Culture Research into the development of mythology, philosophy, reli Reflections on Transn Edgardo Minond, Transatlantic. Agrandir Original jpeg, 4,3M. The Flight of European Artists fr On the photographer Pierr The diary of a development , Cambridge Bibliographie Theodor W. Table des illustrations Titre Arch. Haut de page. Suivez-nous Flux RSS.
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Paulo Antunes Ribeiro
Arquitetura Contemporânea no Brasil